Požega is pearl of "Golden valley", located at the heart of a plain surrounded by mountains and hills of Psunj, Papuk, Krndija, Dilj and Požeška Gora.
It is a city of 26,248 with nearly eight centuries of historical heritage, although archaeological finds confirm human presence in the area during prehistoric times. The oldest historical record of the city dates back to 1227, when a fortification in Požega became a royal estate. Originally seat of Požega County, later a of a Turkish sanjak, Požega has become an important cultural centre following expulsion of the Turks in 1688. In 1699, the first Slavonian secondary school has been founded in Požega, while Academia Possegana is active between 1763 and 1774. The greatest renaissance of Požega occurs during the 18th century. In that period, Požega craftsmen founded numerous guilds and spurred economic development of the city. Schools, a pharmacy and a post office have been founded, and banking has started to develop as well.
Following authorization by empress Maria Theresa of Austria, St. Theresa of Avila church has been completed and consecrated on the 23rd of July 1763. The first city government of Požega established following Croatian independence restored patronage of St. Theresa of Avila church, and St. Theresa of Avila is considered a patron saint of Požega. On the 27th of September 1997, the church has become Požega Diocese cathedral, and the first bishop of Požega, Msgr. Antun Škvorčević, Ph.D., has been ordained there. By the grace of Maria Theresa of Austria, Požega became free royal city in 1765, thus gaining great benefits, including its own judiciary, taxation and parish priests.
Since the 19th century, Požega has been affectionately known as "Athens of Slavonia", as numerous cultural societies were founded in the period, many of them remaining active to the present day: the city library, singing society, fire-fighters etc.
This city was either birthplace or residence of numerous famous artisans and public persons: Antun Kanižlić, baroque poet; Vjekoslav Babukić, the first language scholar of Illyrian movement; Miroslav Kraljević the Elder, author of the first Croatian romanticism novel; Josip Eugen Tomić and Janko Jurković, writers; Franjo Ciraki, poet; Dragutin Lerman, explorer of Africa; and others. The city was residence of Miroslav Kraljević the Younger, one of the most famous Croatian painters.
Požega is accessible from all four corners of the world. Each entrance reveals a different part of cultural heritage of this "Athens of Slavonia", only to have all its beauty pour into its baroque Holy Trinity Square, which is unique in Croatia. The square graced by baroque arches also contains Holy Trinity monument (votive monument, erected following plague epidemic of 1749), St. Lawrence church with 14th century frescos, Jesuit college completed in 1711, the original Gymnasium school completed in 1726, as well as atelier of Miroslav Kraljević.
Today, Požega is an important cultural and economic centre, and since recently seat of Požega Diocese, Požega – Slavonia County, Požega Polytechnic, and a number of other cultural and educational institutions. Numerous archaeological finds kept in Požega City Museum bear witness to life and settlements in the "Golden valley" well into distant past.